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EVOLUTION OF THE SPANISH EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

The Minister of education, culture and sport explains the evolution of the education of Spain as:

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM.

National education systems arise in Europe in the early 19th century as a result of the French Revolution. In Spain, the 1812 Constitution incorporates the idea of education as a structural in the Organization, financing and control should intervene the State, with the basis for the establishment of the Spanish educational system. However, the definitive concretion culminates with the approval, in 1.857, called The Moyano law.

EDUCATION SINCE THE END OF THE OLD REGIME UNTIL THE ENACTMENT OF THE MOYANO LAW IN 1857.

The Spanish reaction to the Napoleonic invasion starts the liberal revolution, which has most important legislative resulted in the adoption, by the Cortes of Cadiz, of the Constitution of 1812. It is the only Constitution in the history of Spain who has dedicated a title exclusively, that includes important new ideas in the field of education. They include his defense of the universality of primary education for the entire population without exceptions and uniformity of teachings for all the State.

A few months later comes the first military rebellion  in the history, and he Government returned to the old regime.  In 1820-23, after the military uprising, is an important period for the history of education, given that regulates a new educational structure. In 1843, with the coming of age of Isabel II, opens a new period in the history of Spain lasting until 1854: called «moderate decade». The key law of this stage of moderate liberal character, is the Constitution of 1845. She was to serve the Spanish nation alleviating any hint of radicalism or idealistic attitudes and  the political life of the country.

FROM THE MOYANO LAW TO THE FIRST REPUBLIC . 1857-1874

The Moyano law consists of four sections. The first, ” studies”, regulates the educational levels of the system: primary school, divided into elementary (compulsory and free for who can not afford it) and higher; secondary education, which includes six years of general studies and studies of application industrial professions; and, on the upper level, studies of faculties, higher education and professional teachings. In the second section “of educational establishments” regulating schools public and private. The third, ‘of the public teachers’, regulates training, form of access and public education faculty bodies. Finally, in the  last section « the Government and administration of public instruction» settle three perfectly hierarchical levels of educational administration (central, provincial and local), and regulated a few timid attempts of society participation in providing advice to the various administrations.

the great innovations did  not happened during this period in educational policy, many of the reforms introduced in the issue of freedom of education were incorporated into the Spanish educational system in a definitive way.

EDUCATION AT THE TIME OF THE RESTORATION. 1874-1923.

The following events of the revolutionary Sexennium, the wishes of peace and order of broad sectors of the population facilitated the arrival of restoration. In 1876 approves a new Constitution which restores the constitutional monarchy and who, being markedly conservative, knew how to combine more progressive principles: universal suffrage, the Declaration of the rights of man and religious tolerance. Parties  system made education a space of political struggle for the freedom of education, educational legislation describing a movement depending on who took the portfolio of education.

Until 1923, the policy in general, and education in particular, were  unstable. On October 13, 1923, the general Primo de Rivera led a military coup that ended the restoration.

THE SECOND REPUBLIC. 1931-1936.

The second elections to the courts of the Republic, giving the victory to the right-wing parties in 1933. This meant that many of the educational approaches of the previous Government will repeal.

The third election of the Republic, in 1936, gave victory to the Popular Front, an Alliance of left-wing organisations and parties. While his election promises included educational reforms, the military revolt, which brought the civil war and the end of the Republic, did not allow to put un practice.

THE DICTATORSHIP OF GENERAL FRANCO. 1936-1975.

The political regime that is imposed in Spain from the civil war do not worry of designing a school other than the pre-existing system. In the early years, education is only interested in the Government as a transmitter vehicle for ideology, no matter your organization in excess and internal structure.

In 1960s, economic expansion, the ofindustrialization process, the explosion school despite the fact that promise his election  included educational reforms, the military revolt, which brought the civil war and the end of the Republic

THE DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION AND REFORM OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM.

Franco died in November 1975. In the head of State Juan Carlos I, King of Spain,  appoints to the  Minister Adolfo Suárez in 1976. The setting of democratic principles and participation in the Constitution makes that new educational laws go by passing. It will be the Government of the Socialist CWP Spanish, come to power after the general elections of 1982, who is responsible for this task.

The Popular Party won the general elections convened in 1996 and in 2000, performing the tasks of Government since then. Currently remain the above-mentioned organic law, so it will be addressed in the next heading.

  • There are different laws that has been created to manage the education:
  1. THE ORGANIC LAW OF GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM (LOGSE).
  2. ORGANIC LAW REGULATING THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION (LODE)
  3. THE ORGANIC LAW OF GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM (LOGSE).

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM:

The Spanish Constitution adopted by the courts in 1978 and ratified by popular vote advocates as higher values of the legal system the freedom, justice, equality and political pluralism.

It appears in the Constitution:

1. «Todos tienen el derecho a la educación. Se reconoce la libertad de enseñanza.

2. La educación tendrá por objeto el pleno desarrollo de la personalidad humana en el respeto a los principios democráticos de convivencia y a los derechos y libertades fundamentales.

3. Los poderes públicos garantizan el derecho que asiste a los padres para que sus hijos reciban la formación religiosa y moral que esté de acuerdo con sus propias convicciones.

4. La enseñanza básica es obligatoria y gratuita.

5. Los poderes públicos garantizan el derecho de todos a la educación, mediante una programación general de la enseñanza, con participación efectiva de todos los sectores afectados y la creación de centros docentes.

6. Se reconoce a las personas físicas y jurídicas la libertad de creación de centros docentes,dentro del respeto a los principios constitucionales.

7. Los profesores, los padres y, en su caso, los alumnos intervendrán en el control y gestión de los centros en los términos que la ley establezca.

8. Los poderes públicos inspeccionarán y homologarán el sistema educativo para garantizar el cumplimiento de las leyes.

9. Los poderes públicos ayudarán a los centros docentes que reúnan los requisitos que la ley establezca.

10. Se reconoce la autonomía de las Universidades, en los términos que la ley establezca.».

 

sistema-educativo

The LODE, details the rights and freedoms of the members of the

educational community (teachers, parents and students). Students have in the LODE the right to receive training that ensures the full development of their personality, to the objective assessment of their performance, to respect for their freedom of conscience and belief, to respect their integrity and dignity, to participate in the operation of the Centre, to receive school and professional guidance and the precise help to offset short comings of family type economic, socio-cultural and social protection if necessary, as well as the right to associate.

NOWADAYS EDUCATION SYSTEM: 

If you want to know nowadays situation of the education systems read this link! http://www.slideshare.net/pacobati/spanish-educational-system

There are different power points about education that helps a lot to learn more about education .

REFERENCES :

Here you can find more information , about the education progress in Spain since 2006:

http://www.ibe.unesco.org/National_Reports/ICE_2008/spain_NR08_sp.pdf

http://uom.uib.cat/digitalAssets/202/202199_6.pdf

http://www.slideshare.net/pacobati/spanish-educational-system

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