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NATALITY AND MORTALITY:

Do you know what are the symptoms that you have when you are pregnant and Mayo Clinic Staff have published or what are the expert’s opinions about abortion? Have you heard about the law imposed in China many years ago? If you want to know about these topics, you have to read this post about natality and mortality and you will learn more things such as types of mortality or the causes of natality. It will be very nice!

Natality:

Natality rate is considered to be “the proportional number of births that occur in a population, and a certain period of time. From the perspective of demographics, the birth rate is a measure to quantify the levels of fertility”..

Natality rate is calculated: number of births/unit of time/Average Population

Causes of natality:

Causes of low natality rate:

–          Socioeconomical cause: the high cost of houses stops the union of young couples and, as a consequence, they don’t have children very early. Even with the actual crisis, young people find very difficult to get a job due to the situation we are facing, so they don’t have children due to money. Furthermore, nowadays, fewer partners are getting married and if they get married, they separate very soon.

–          Religion cause: the descendant of the religious practice in the development societies.

Causes of high natality rate:

–          Lack of education: especially on reproduction and sex among the married couples or people rise to fatalistic beliefs such as children are the gift of gods.

–          Economic aspects: especially poor farmers regard their children as a source of future income because they could help in the field. Children are not considered an obstacle because they help in the economy activity of the family

–          Demographic cause: as the mortality is less, women that can have children live more years and can have more children.

Types of natality

Animal natality

In order to calculate the animal natality, we use a specific birth rate; the age, because animals are represented as an age-specific schedule of births. This specific schedule only counts the females that get birth females and with that results, they can compare it with the last generation in order to know how many of them can continue reproducing; to know that, we have to count the numbers of females that have been born in a year.

Plant natality:

Plants’ natality is more difficult to determine than animals. The factors that make it difficult to measure are:

–          Seed production of a plant vary year to year

–          Seed production could vary age class to age class too.

–          The seeds will become dormant for long periods of time before germinating

The germination of the seeds by the plant, could be longer for accurate measurement.

Natality in humans

The human’s natality is very similar to the animal’s natality. Birth rates are used to make government policies depending how the population grows that is a great factor to establish the age-specific schedules. It is also useful to determine the environmental toxins that could bring problems to the women that are in the age of conceiving.

SYMPTOMS OF PREGNANCY

The earliest symptom of pregnancy comes the first week after conceptions; it is here were you have to face dizziness, change of mood and nauseous.  How could you know if you are pregnant or not? It is very easy, just controlling the last time you have the menstruation and if you haven’t got since then, maybe is when you have to suspect that you are pregnant. See now what the normal symptoms are:

        i.            Tender, swollen breasts:  In the first weeks of pregnancy you will feel you’re your breasts are tender, sensitive or sore or maybe fully or heavier.

       ii.            Nausea with or without vomiting: Nauseas are very common and could begin as soon as 3 weeks after the conception. They can even feel that the smell make them feel dizzy.

      iii.            Fatigue: It is an early symptom too and it cause due to the levels of the hormone progesterone soar that make you feel sleepy

     iv.            Food aversions or cravings: These food preferences can be chalked up to hormonal changes. It is very common to have cravings because when you are pregnant, you will be hungrier.

v.            Increased urination: You will find yourself urinating more than usual.

Natality in China:

The one-child policy is the policy made by the Republic of China to control the population. However, any demographers are not agreed with this law because there are exceptions:

  • Families in which neither parent has siblings are allowed to have two children.
  • Residents of the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, and foreigners living in China are also exempt from the policy.
  • Rural families can have a second child if the first child is a girl or is disabled, and ethnic minorities are exempt.

Although this policy was introduced in 1979 to sofocate social, economic and environmental problems in China, has caused many problems such as abortion, female infanticide and underreporting of female births.

China has increased the law of having just 1 baby per family because the number of males is very high and there are not as many females as males because girls were killed when they were born or sent to special places. The Government permits now to have another child in families were one of the parents is an only child. The birth rate achieved in 2013 has been 12.25 births/1000 population.

Quotes of natality:

  •  Maya Angelou: “My greatest blessing has been the birth of my son. My next greatest blessing has been my ability to turn into children of mine”.
  • Arthur Schopenhauer: “Every waking and rising a little birth, every fresh morning a little youth, every going to rest and sleep a little death”
  • Marcus Aurelius:  “Death, like birth, is a secret of Nature”.
  • Johnny Deep: “Anything I’ve done up till May 27th 1999 was kind of an illusion, existing without living. My daughter, the birth of my daughter, gave me life”.
  • Jacques Yves Cousteau: “From birth, man carries the weight of gravity on his shoulders. He is bolted to earth. But man has only to sink beneath the surface and he is free”.
  • E.M.Forster: “The main facts in human life are five: birth, food, sleep, love and death”.

Mortality:

Mortality rate is “a measure of the number of deaths in a population per 1000 inhabitants/individuals during a determinate period of time, normally a year”. This could be calculate in that way:

M= D/P * 1000

M: Mortality

D: Deaths

P: Population

–          The results could be:

More than 30% = High Mortality

Between 15% and 20% = Average Mortality

Less than 15% = Low Mortality

Causes of mortality

According to the World Health Organization the 10 famous causes of death in 2002 were:

  1. 12.6% Ischaemic heart disease or coronary heart disease causes 82,000 deaths per year and about 1 in 5 men and 1 in 8 women die due to that disease. It is important to mention that this disease affects more men than women.
  2. 9.7% cerebrovascular disease is a group of brain dysfunctions related to disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain. Cerebrovascular disease can be divided into embolism, aneurysms, and low flow states depending on its cause. Major modifiable risk factors include hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes.
  3. 6.8% Lower respiratory infections: is a generic term for an acute infection of the trachea (windpipe), airways and lungs, which make up the lower respiratory system. LTRIs include bronchitis, croup and pneumonia. This disease is more common in winter because people spend more time outside their homes.
  4. 4.9% HIV/AIDS: is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  5. 4.8% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:  is a type of obstructive lung diseases characterized by chronically poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production. Normally, people who smoke, have this disease
  6. 3.2% diarrhoeal diseases: is having more frequent, loose, watery poo, which may be referred to as ‘stools’. You may have this disease when you are in contact with a person that has it or from food poisoning (contaminated water or food).
  7. 2.7% Tuberculosis: is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs. Although this disease could be treated, scientist have never eradicated it
  8. 2.2% Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers: a pulmonary malignancy attributable in the majority of cases to cigarette smoking.
  9. 2.2% Malaria: An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating, caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium in red blood cells, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito.
  10. 2.1% Road traffic accidents: Those accidents are caused due to fog, ice, bad weather, alcohol, drugs and lapse of concentration.

There are other causes of mortality:

  • Diseases of the circulatory system:  Diseases of the circulatory system include those related to high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and smoking
  • Different types of cancer.

Causes of death vary between first and third world countries. Here you can see a table with 10 countries where mortality is more common:

Rank Country Death rate
1 South Africa 17.23
2 Ukraine 15.76
3 Lesotho 15.18
4 Chad 15.16
5 Guinea-Bissau 15.01
6 Central African Republic 14.71
7  Afghanistan 14.59
8  Somalia 14.55
9   Bulgaria 14.32
10   Swaziland 14.21

Types of mortality

(1)    Crude mortality rate is calculated by that way: number of deaths divided by the average population. It is usually multiplied by 100,000, so that the scale unit is “Deaths per 100,000 of the population”.

(2)    Age-specific mortality rate is the total of deaths to residents of a specific age in a specific geographic area divided by the population of the same age and multiplied by 100,000.

(3)    Cause-specific mortality rate: specified cause for a population during a specified time period.

(4)    Proportionate mortality: The proportion of deaths in a specific population over a period of time attributable to different causes.

(5)    Case-fatality rate: is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of “cases” over the course of the disease.

(6)    Excess mortality rate: is a premature death, or one that occurs before the average life for a person of a particular demographic category.

(7)    Neonatal mortality ratio: Neonatal mortality rate is the number of neonates dying before reaching 28 days of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year.

(8)     Infant mortality ratio: is the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1000 live births. Childhood mortality is the death of a child before the child’s fifth birthday.

(9)     Under 5 mortality ratio: is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

(10) Maternal mortality ratio: is the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in same time period. That means the death of women when they are pregnant or 42 days before they finished their pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy but not from accidental causes

(11) Standardised mortality ratio: is a comparison of the deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age, gender…

Mortality quotes

  1.  R.D.Laing: “Life is a sexually transmitted disease and the mortality rate is one hundred percent”.
  2.  Thomas S.Monson: “In reality, we are all travellers – even explorers of mortality”.
  3.  Keanu Reeves: “Mortality is different when you are 20 to when you are 50”.
  4.  Elizabeth Edwards: “I’ve spent a lot of words on my own mortality”
  5. Mehmet Oz: “Every hour you sit at work increases your mortality 11 percent. Think about that”.
  6. Brandon Boyd: “I think that there is something beautiful about mortality. It makes our decisions mean more”.

Opinions about abortion, natality and mortality:

  • Stephen Adams: “Parents should be allowed to have their new-born babies killed because they are “morally irrelevant” and ending their lives is no different to abortion”
  • Richard Nixon: “There are times when abortion is necessary. I know that. When you have a black and a white…or a rape”. (Jan 23, 1973)
  • Ron Paul: “I strongly believe that a fetus is a human life and that a fetus deserves the same legal protections afforded to all Americans”. (Apr 30, 2001)
  • European research: “Fruit and vegetables consumption reduces risk of mortality”
  • David Wahlberg: “Birth listings: “set people up as targets for somebody who might want to steal a baby”.
  • Anna Hodgekiss: “Mothers-to-be take folic acid and vitamin B12 to prevent birth defects”
  • Julia Davis: “Brittany Murphy’s death should be re-examined”.
  • Pat Roberson: “Alzheimer’s disease is a “kind of death””.

References: (All taken on the 6th January 2014)

By Aroa Sobrino Esteban

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One response to “NATALITY AND MORTALITY:

  1. Aroa Sobrino Esteban January 6, 2014 at 9:08 pm

    You will see more information of the post in the references below

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