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NATALITY AND MORTALITY:

Do you know what are the symptoms that you have when you are pregnant and Mayo Clinic Staff have published or what are the expert’s opinions about abortion? Have you heard about the law imposed in China many years ago? If you want to know about these topics, you have to read this post about natality and mortality and you will learn more things such as types of mortality or the causes of natality. It will be very nice!

Natality:

Natality rate is considered to be “the proportional number of births that occur in a population, and a certain period of time. From the perspective of demographics, the birth rate is a measure to quantify the levels of fertility”..

Natality rate is calculated: number of births/unit of time/Average Population

Causes of natality:

Causes of low natality rate:

–          Socioeconomical cause: the high cost of houses stops the union of young couples and, as a consequence, they don’t have children very early. Even with the actual crisis, young people find very difficult to get a job due to the situation we are facing, so they don’t have children due to money. Furthermore, nowadays, fewer partners are getting married and if they get married, they separate very soon.

–          Religion cause: the descendant of the religious practice in the development societies.

Causes of high natality rate:

–          Lack of education: especially on reproduction and sex among the married couples or people rise to fatalistic beliefs such as children are the gift of gods.

–          Economic aspects: especially poor farmers regard their children as a source of future income because they could help in the field. Children are not considered an obstacle because they help in the economy activity of the family

–          Demographic cause: as the mortality is less, women that can have children live more years and can have more children.

Types of natality

Animal natality

In order to calculate the animal natality, we use a specific birth rate; the age, because animals are represented as an age-specific schedule of births. This specific schedule only counts the females that get birth females and with that results, they can compare it with the last generation in order to know how many of them can continue reproducing; to know that, we have to count the numbers of females that have been born in a year.

Plant natality:

Plants’ natality is more difficult to determine than animals. The factors that make it difficult to measure are:

–          Seed production of a plant vary year to year

–          Seed production could vary age class to age class too.

–          The seeds will become dormant for long periods of time before germinating

The germination of the seeds by the plant, could be longer for accurate measurement.

Natality in humans

The human’s natality is very similar to the animal’s natality. Birth rates are used to make government policies depending how the population grows that is a great factor to establish the age-specific schedules. It is also useful to determine the environmental toxins that could bring problems to the women that are in the age of conceiving.

SYMPTOMS OF PREGNANCY

The earliest symptom of pregnancy comes the first week after conceptions; it is here were you have to face dizziness, change of mood and nauseous.  How could you know if you are pregnant or not? It is very easy, just controlling the last time you have the menstruation and if you haven’t got since then, maybe is when you have to suspect that you are pregnant. See now what the normal symptoms are:

        i.            Tender, swollen breasts:  In the first weeks of pregnancy you will feel you’re your breasts are tender, sensitive or sore or maybe fully or heavier.

       ii.            Nausea with or without vomiting: Nauseas are very common and could begin as soon as 3 weeks after the conception. They can even feel that the smell make them feel dizzy.

      iii.            Fatigue: It is an early symptom too and it cause due to the levels of the hormone progesterone soar that make you feel sleepy

     iv.            Food aversions or cravings: These food preferences can be chalked up to hormonal changes. It is very common to have cravings because when you are pregnant, you will be hungrier.

v.            Increased urination: You will find yourself urinating more than usual.

Natality in China:

The one-child policy is the policy made by the Republic of China to control the population. However, any demographers are not agreed with this law because there are exceptions:

  • Families in which neither parent has siblings are allowed to have two children.
  • Residents of the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, and foreigners living in China are also exempt from the policy.
  • Rural families can have a second child if the first child is a girl or is disabled, and ethnic minorities are exempt.

Although this policy was introduced in 1979 to sofocate social, economic and environmental problems in China, has caused many problems such as abortion, female infanticide and underreporting of female births.

China has increased the law of having just 1 baby per family because the number of males is very high and there are not as many females as males because girls were killed when they were born or sent to special places. The Government permits now to have another child in families were one of the parents is an only child. The birth rate achieved in 2013 has been 12.25 births/1000 population.

Quotes of natality:

  •  Maya Angelou: “My greatest blessing has been the birth of my son. My next greatest blessing has been my ability to turn into children of mine”.
  • Arthur Schopenhauer: “Every waking and rising a little birth, every fresh morning a little youth, every going to rest and sleep a little death”
  • Marcus Aurelius:  “Death, like birth, is a secret of Nature”.
  • Johnny Deep: “Anything I’ve done up till May 27th 1999 was kind of an illusion, existing without living. My daughter, the birth of my daughter, gave me life”.
  • Jacques Yves Cousteau: “From birth, man carries the weight of gravity on his shoulders. He is bolted to earth. But man has only to sink beneath the surface and he is free”.
  • E.M.Forster: “The main facts in human life are five: birth, food, sleep, love and death”.

Mortality:

Mortality rate is “a measure of the number of deaths in a population per 1000 inhabitants/individuals during a determinate period of time, normally a year”. This could be calculate in that way:

M= D/P * 1000

M: Mortality

D: Deaths

P: Population

–          The results could be:

More than 30% = High Mortality

Between 15% and 20% = Average Mortality

Less than 15% = Low Mortality

Causes of mortality

According to the World Health Organization the 10 famous causes of death in 2002 were:

  1. 12.6% Ischaemic heart disease or coronary heart disease causes 82,000 deaths per year and about 1 in 5 men and 1 in 8 women die due to that disease. It is important to mention that this disease affects more men than women.
  2. 9.7% cerebrovascular disease is a group of brain dysfunctions related to disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain. Cerebrovascular disease can be divided into embolism, aneurysms, and low flow states depending on its cause. Major modifiable risk factors include hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes.
  3. 6.8% Lower respiratory infections: is a generic term for an acute infection of the trachea (windpipe), airways and lungs, which make up the lower respiratory system. LTRIs include bronchitis, croup and pneumonia. This disease is more common in winter because people spend more time outside their homes.
  4. 4.9% HIV/AIDS: is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  5. 4.8% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:  is a type of obstructive lung diseases characterized by chronically poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production. Normally, people who smoke, have this disease
  6. 3.2% diarrhoeal diseases: is having more frequent, loose, watery poo, which may be referred to as ‘stools’. You may have this disease when you are in contact with a person that has it or from food poisoning (contaminated water or food).
  7. 2.7% Tuberculosis: is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs. Although this disease could be treated, scientist have never eradicated it
  8. 2.2% Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers: a pulmonary malignancy attributable in the majority of cases to cigarette smoking.
  9. 2.2% Malaria: An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating, caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium in red blood cells, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito.
  10. 2.1% Road traffic accidents: Those accidents are caused due to fog, ice, bad weather, alcohol, drugs and lapse of concentration.

There are other causes of mortality:

  • Diseases of the circulatory system:  Diseases of the circulatory system include those related to high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes and smoking
  • Different types of cancer.

Causes of death vary between first and third world countries. Here you can see a table with 10 countries where mortality is more common:

Rank Country Death rate
1 South Africa 17.23
2 Ukraine 15.76
3 Lesotho 15.18
4 Chad 15.16
5 Guinea-Bissau 15.01
6 Central African Republic 14.71
7  Afghanistan 14.59
8  Somalia 14.55
9   Bulgaria 14.32
10   Swaziland 14.21

Types of mortality

(1)    Crude mortality rate is calculated by that way: number of deaths divided by the average population. It is usually multiplied by 100,000, so that the scale unit is “Deaths per 100,000 of the population”.

(2)    Age-specific mortality rate is the total of deaths to residents of a specific age in a specific geographic area divided by the population of the same age and multiplied by 100,000.

(3)    Cause-specific mortality rate: specified cause for a population during a specified time period.

(4)    Proportionate mortality: The proportion of deaths in a specific population over a period of time attributable to different causes.

(5)    Case-fatality rate: is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of “cases” over the course of the disease.

(6)    Excess mortality rate: is a premature death, or one that occurs before the average life for a person of a particular demographic category.

(7)    Neonatal mortality ratio: Neonatal mortality rate is the number of neonates dying before reaching 28 days of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year.

(8)     Infant mortality ratio: is the number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per 1000 live births. Childhood mortality is the death of a child before the child’s fifth birthday.

(9)     Under 5 mortality ratio: is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five, if subject to current age-specific mortality rates.

(10) Maternal mortality ratio: is the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in same time period. That means the death of women when they are pregnant or 42 days before they finished their pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy but not from accidental causes

(11) Standardised mortality ratio: is a comparison of the deaths that would have been expected if the population had been of a standard composition in terms of age, gender…

Mortality quotes

  1.  R.D.Laing: “Life is a sexually transmitted disease and the mortality rate is one hundred percent”.
  2.  Thomas S.Monson: “In reality, we are all travellers – even explorers of mortality”.
  3.  Keanu Reeves: “Mortality is different when you are 20 to when you are 50”.
  4.  Elizabeth Edwards: “I’ve spent a lot of words on my own mortality”
  5. Mehmet Oz: “Every hour you sit at work increases your mortality 11 percent. Think about that”.
  6. Brandon Boyd: “I think that there is something beautiful about mortality. It makes our decisions mean more”.

Opinions about abortion, natality and mortality:

  • Stephen Adams: “Parents should be allowed to have their new-born babies killed because they are “morally irrelevant” and ending their lives is no different to abortion”
  • Richard Nixon: “There are times when abortion is necessary. I know that. When you have a black and a white…or a rape”. (Jan 23, 1973)
  • Ron Paul: “I strongly believe that a fetus is a human life and that a fetus deserves the same legal protections afforded to all Americans”. (Apr 30, 2001)
  • European research: “Fruit and vegetables consumption reduces risk of mortality”
  • David Wahlberg: “Birth listings: “set people up as targets for somebody who might want to steal a baby”.
  • Anna Hodgekiss: “Mothers-to-be take folic acid and vitamin B12 to prevent birth defects”
  • Julia Davis: “Brittany Murphy’s death should be re-examined”.
  • Pat Roberson: “Alzheimer’s disease is a “kind of death””.

References: (All taken on the 6th January 2014)

By Aroa Sobrino Esteban

Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect

Would you like to know what are the causes and the consequences that Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect have? The only thing you have to do is to read this text to know more about what does the NASA says from those two topics.

Global Warming is “the rise in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. This process began in the late 19th century and has continued until nowadays. Experts are convinced that Global Warming was caused by the increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases that are produced by human’s activities such as deforestation or the burning of fossil fuels”.

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Greenhouse effect is “the process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases”.

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Now you will see some impacts of global change nowadays:

  •   More cold days and nights in winter
  •   More hot days and nights in summer
  •   More heat waves
  •   Increased the incidence of extreme high sea level
  •   Global area affected by droughts
  •   Increase the activity of the tropical cyclone activity

Now you will see some regional impacts of global change forecast by the IPCC:

  1.   North America: Decreasing snowpack in the western mountains, increasing 5-20% the rain-fed agriculture and increasing and more duration of the waves.
  2.   Latin America: A replacement of tropical forest, a risk in biodiversity has brought the extinction on many animal and a change in the available water for humans
  3.   Europe: Increased risk of island flash floods, more frequent floods, increased of the erosion from storms, glacial retreat and reduction of snow and in the crop productivity.
  4.  Africa: the inhabitants will be exposed to water stress, reduction of the yields due to rain-fed and compromising agricultural production.
  5.  Asia: Fresh water will decrease, increasing of floods and death rate from floods and droughts.

CAUSES OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

The Earth is covered with an air’s blanket called “atmosphere”, which is made of several gases. The sun is hotter than the Earth so he has to heat the Earth (radiation) with his rays those rays go through the atmosphere and arrive in the Earth. When the Earth is warm, this heat goes back to the atmosphere and the atmosphere’s gases, stops that heat in order not to escape to the space. These gases are called greenhouse gases and the natural process between the sun, the atmosphere and the Earth is called the ‘Greenhouse Effect’, because it works the same way as a greenhouse.

This effect is caused by some reasons:

  1. Deforestation: Increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and this is one of the main reasons why photosynthesis cannot take place. Deforestation has increased because of the burning of wood.
  2. Burning of Fossils: Greenhouse gases can also be released into the atmosphere due to the burning of fossil fuels, oil, coal and gas. They are used in factories and are the principal reason of greenhousing.
  3. Electrical Appliances: Another man-made that have caused Greenhouse effect is the use of electrical appliances that emit greenhouse gases to the atmosphere; those gases are called Chlorofluorocarbons and are produced by refrigerators, aerosol cans…
  4. Population Growth: It is an indirect factor and one of the major causes of greenhouse effect. If the population increases, the needs increase and that create an increase of the manufacturing and the industry process that means that they produce more gases to the atmosphere.

CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING.

Global Warming is caused by many things. The causes are divided into two groups, man-made causes, and natural causes.

1)      Natural causes: Are normally created by nature that produces methane gas that is a greenhouse gas that traps the heat in the atmosphere.

2)      Man-made causes: There are many man-made causes but the ones that makes more damage are: pollution, burning fossils, population and transportation that normally are used by people when they have to drive vehicles.

CONSEQUENCES OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

It is very difficult to forecast the consequences of global warming since natural processes as rain, hail, storms… depend on many issues. The predictable’s effects are:

(1)    More droughts and flooding: When the weather gets warmer, evaporation from land and sea increases. Famine is the main problem that this factor can caused due to crops failure.

(2)    Less ice and snow: The icebergs and glaciers are shrinking faster than before and this problem can caused drought and a lack of domestic water supply.

(3)    More weather incidents: The warmer climate will cause more heatwaves, more violent rainfall and increase the number of storms.

(4)    Rising the sea level: this happens due to the ice’s melting and can caused the disappearance of areas that are now above the sea level. For this reason, plants will be affected and there will be more diseases spread by insects.

CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING

7.2 degrees is the additional time that scientist have said about the heating that the Earth could get during the 21st century. This rise of temperature will have negatives effects on the earth’s climate and on all things that are alive. Some of these changes have just begun:

i.            Weather patterns: hot, dry weather led to wildland dire season that destroy the major part of the forests.

ii.            Health: Heat waves contribute to the death

iii.            Wildlife: many animals are beginning to die due to the changes that are beginning with the global warming

iv.            Glaciers and sea level: will increase due to the melting of glaciers.

EXPERTS OPINIONS

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: “Taken as a whole, the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time”.
  • Chair Henry Kendall: “We the undersigned, senior members of the world’s scientific community, hereby warn all humanity of what lies ahead. A great change in our stewardship of the earth and the life on it is required, if vast human misery is to be avoided and our global home on this planet is not to be irretrievably mutilated”.
  • Sarah Tsao: “The Earth is like a giant oven; it’s getting really hot”.
  • Steve Lowe: “The threat of severe global climate imbalance and localized climate chaos will continue to accelerate as fossil-fueled civilization continues down its current consumptive-oriented path. Methane from termites, cows, garbage dumps and rice paddies threaten to inevitably unleash compacted methane currently locked in polar ice. Reckless burning of fossil fuels unleashing long-cycle carbon dioxide is only the catalyst. Remember that “short-cycle” carbon dioxide is okay — local combustion / conversion of plant-life that was alive the previous season — only releases C02 “in balance” with the C02 that was inhaled by the living biomass/plant. Every action has consequences! Every day is Earth Day!”

QUOTES

Global warming:

  • Sienna Miller “If each one of us does our bit, we will be helping to keep Global Warming from harming our countries”
  • Brian Eno: “I would like to see a future where artists think that they have a right to contemplate things like Global Warming”
  • Dennis Miller: “The radical right is so homophobic that they are blaming Global Warming on th AIDS quilt”
  • David Suzuki: “The failure of world leaders to act on the critical issue ofGlobal Warming is often blamed on economic considerations”
  • Freeman Dyson: “Unfortunately the Global Warming histeria, as I see it, is driven by politics more than sciences”
  • John Coleman: “Global Warming: It is a hoax. It is bad science. It is high-jacking public policy. It is the greatest scam in history”

Greenhouse effect:

  • Mahatma Gandhi: “We must become the change we want to see in the world.”
  • William Cowper: Who loves a garden loves a greenhouse too.
  • Elon Musk: “You could warm Mars up, over time, with greenhouse gases”
  • Jack Herer: “You see, the Greenhouse Effect is a direct result of burning fossil or old carbon fuels”
  • Joan Jett: “Factory farming is one of the biggest contributions to the most serious environmental problems. The meat industry causes more greenhouse gas emissions tan all the cars, trucks, planes and ships in the world.”
  • Gina McCarthy: “Greenhouse gas pollution, throught its contribution to global climate change, presents a significant thread to Americans’ health and to the environment upon which our economy and security depends”.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: (All taken on the 19th December 2013)

–          NASA: “Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet” (2007):http://climate.nasa.gov/effects

–          ThinkQuest Junior by Team J003411: “Causes of Global Warming” (Copyright March, 2000): http://library.thinkquest.org/J003411/causes.htm

–          Roy D’Silva: “Causes of the Greenhouse Effect” (Last Updated: March 20, 2012); ©2000-2012, 2013 Buzzle.com®: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/causes-greenhouse-effect.html

–         Natural Resources Defense Council : „Consequences of Global Warming“ (Last revised 12/10/2008): http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/fcons.asp

–          British Geological Survey: “Consequences of greenhouse-effect temperature rises” © NERC 2013:http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/climateChange/CCS/consequencesOfTemperatureIncrease.html

–          Project by students for students: “Views and predictions”; Oracle ThinkQuest:http://library.thinkquest.org/11013/gwviews.html

–          Brainy Quote: “Greenhouse Quotes” © 2001 – 2013 BrainyQuote®:http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/greenhouse.html

–          Brainy Quote: “Global Warming Quotes” © 2001 – 2013 BrainyQuote®:http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/global_warming.html

Published by Aroa Sobrino Esteban

Financial Crisis in Spain

Would you like to know the causes and the consequences of the economic crisis in Spain 2008-2013 that Francisco Carballo-Cruz has written? Just read this post in which you can get information about it.

A financial crisis is the depressive phase of the evolution of an economic recession that comes with a loss of credibility, strength and power of a financial system, capitalism system, bankruptcy of the establish order, loss of value of financial elements and consequences very difficult to control.

This crisis is the worst since the Great Depression in the 1930s. This crisis called as well, as Great Recession, began in 2008 and continues nowadays. It has been prolonged for more than 5 years and not only affects in the economic area but also the politic and social area.  This crisis has affected many countries of the world and specially, the developed countries. The crisis began as an extension of the international financial crisis, but the internal imbalances accumulated in the pre-crisis period aggravated the situation.

In Spain, this crisis meant the end of the estate agency bubble, the banking crisis and finally the unemployment. Furthermore, many measures were imposed in order to try to improve the situation but these measures brought problems like for example the strikes (15 M) due to the cutbacks. Experts still think that the end of this crisis is very far yet.

After 4 years of crisis, the Spanish economy is getting better with little recoveries. However, to overcome this situation it is necessary to break the vicious circle of low economic growth, high unemployment and elevated debt.

The Spanish government made 2 main reforms:

1. The Banking Sector’s Reform: The start of the crisis showed that it was very important and neccesary to make a deep reform due to structural reasons and intrinsic characteristics of the Spanish economic growth during the period before the crisis but this reform did not take place until 2010. However, in 2009 a new instituion with a key in the process of bank restructuring was created, it was called Fund for Orderly Bank Restructuring whose role was to strength the bank solvency.

2. The Labour Market Reform: In order to solve some of the structural problems of the work market, they undertook a reform of this market in 2010. The main objectives of this reform were: the reduction of the duality, the wage rigidity and the promotion of internal flexibility within firms. The main characteristic are: 1. Promotion of the indefinity hiring 2. The extension of the workers that can be hired 3. Introduction of new limits on temporary hiring and on contracts’ duration 4. Extensions of the groups of workers that can benefit from traineeships and apprenticeships.

CAUSES OF THE CRISIS

–       We have committed the same errors as in the crisis of 1929

–       Many banks granted loans unconsciously and this money was never returned, what caused the bankruptcy of some banks

–       During the estate agent bubble, the 17 regions of the country received revenues in this sector and that caused the market collapse starting with a recession

–       Banks needed money so they tried to rescue them.

–       Our actual government president, Mariano Rajoy tried to establish some methods so as not to be rescue by other countries so he made some strong and cruel cutbacks like for example increasing the consumption tax.

CONSECUENCES

–          Protests and several strikes due to the cutbacks: General strike in Spain 2010, 29th Mars 2012 and the European in 2012 and the protests in 2011.

–          Department of Defense suffered cutbacks and they had to take some measures: Scrapping aircraft carriers, troop reduction of 75,000 people, about 5,000, reduction of 73 order vehicles infantry fighting Pizarro, reduction in helicopters and reduction of the use of ships, aircraft and armored vehicles to save fuel and maintenance.

FAMOUS SENTENCES

  • José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (Sep. 11, 2007). During a speech in the Deputies Congress: “Haciendo uso de un símil futbolístico, se podría decir que la economía española ha entrado en esta legislatura en la Champions League de la economía mundial”
  • José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (Abr. 26, 2008). During the Federal Committee’s inaugural speech of PSOE: “La peor previsión de paro siempre será mejor que la mejor que tuvo el PP”.
  • José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (Agosto, 2007). During an interview with El País: “España está totalmente a salvo de la crisis financiera”.
  • José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (Febrero, 2008). During an interview in Punto Radio: “Los parados no son parados, son personas que se han apuntado al paro”. Febrero de 2008. Entrevista en Punto Radio.
  • José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (Mayo 2011). During a meeting in Santander: “Miente como un bellaco quien diga que hemos hecho recortes”.

EXPERTS OPINIONS ABOUT THE CRISIS.

–          Joseph Stiglitz (ex-economist, Nobel Prize and BM’s boss): “We are in the midst of one of the worst crises of the century, and until we hit bottom we cannot stay afloat”

–          Muhammad Yunus (Peace Nobel Prize in 2006): “This crisis today tells us that our system [microcredit] is the one that is working”

–          Geroge Soros (Soros investment fund ):“Instead of just buying toxic debt, most of the funds [federal] should be used to recapitalize the banking system”

Emilio Estevez: “Where people are now in terms of the economic crisis, they’re looking at what we think is the bottom, and I think that’s when people look to film and to spirituality”

– Carmen Busquets: “Investors are impatient and they are also desperate for the “next big thing”, and they are not paying attention to the fact that the “next big thing” can be an economic crisis that they have created by being very irresponsible with their power”

REFERENCES: (all information taken the 20th November 2013)

–  Francisco Carballo-Cruz: “Causes and consequences of the economic crisis in Spain 2008-2013” (9 Sept 2013). PANOECONOMICUS, 2011: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1452-595X/2011/1452-595X1103309C.pdf

–  Brainy quote: “Economic crisis quotes”(Copyright© 2001-2013):  http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/economic_crisis.html

–  2008–13 Spanish financial crisis. (2013, November 21). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:48, December 4, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2008%E2%80%9313_Spanish_financial_crisis&oldid=582733648

–  Crisis económica española de 2008-2013. (2013, 3 de diciembre). Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre. Fecha de consulta: 08:49, diciembre 4, 2013 desde http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crisis_econ%C3%B3mica_espa%C3%B1ola_de_2008-2013&oldid=71144412.

–  Lanacion.com (El Mundo): “¿Qué opinan los expertos sobre las consecuencias de la crisis en España?” (Oct 2, 2008): http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1055473-que-opinan-los-expertos-sobre-las-consecuencias-de-la-crisis

–  El observador: “5 causas de la crisis económica” (Jul 5, 2012) Last modification Nov 20, 2013: http://www.elobservador.com.uy/noticia/228865/las-cinco-causas-de-la-crisis-espanola/

Author: Aroa Sobrino Esteban